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Five Days Of Diwali

Deewali is a festival of joy, splendor, brightness and happiness. It is the festival of lights and is celebrated with great enthusiasm by all Indians all over the world. The uniqueness of this festival is its harmony of five varied philosophies, with each day to a special thought or ideal. People celebrate each of its five days of festivities with true understanding, it will uplift and enrich the lives.

The First Day of Diwali:  Dhanteras

The first day of Diwali is called Dhanvantari Triodasi or Dhanwantari Triodasi also called Dhan Theras. It is in fact the thirteenth lunar day of Krishna Paksh, the dark fortnight of the month of Kartik. On this day, Lord Dhanwantari came out of the ocean with Ayurvedic for mankind. This day marks the beginning of Deepawali celebrations.

On this day at sunset, Hindus should bathe and offer a lighted deeya with Prasad (sweets offered at worship time) to Yama Raj, the Lord of Death and pray for protection from untimely death. This offering should be made near a Tulsi tree, the Holy Basil or any other sacred tree that one might have in their yard. 

Please note many people mistakenly light diya for Yam Raja on Chaturdasi.

The Second Day of Diwali:  Choti Diwali

The second day of Deepawali is called Narak Chaturdasi. On this day Lord Krishna destroyed the demon Narakasur and made the world free from fear. On this day, one should massage the body with oil to relieve it of tiredness, bathe and rest so that Diwali can be celebarated with vigour and devotion.

Devotees In many parts of India also worship Lord Hanumaan Ji and do recital of hanumaan Chalisa, Sundar Kand (Ramayan), Jappa of Hanumaan Sahastra Naama etc.

Diyas are also lighted to celebrate Diwali in small way called choti Diwali.

Also do the usual Pooja of Ganesh, Mata Paarvati & Lord Shiv, Mata Lakshmi & Lord Vishnu and Mata Saraswati.

The Third Day of Diwali: Lakshmi Puja on Diwali

This is the day when worship unto Mother Lakshmi is performed.

Hindus cleanse themselves and join with their families and they worship the divine Goddess Lakshmi to achieve the blessings of wealth and prosperity, the triumph of good over evil and light over darkness.

The Fourth Day of Diwali: Padwa & Govardhan Puja

On this day, Govardhan Pooja is performed. Many thousands of years ago, Lord Krishna caused the people of Vraja to perform Govardhan Pooja.

From then on, every year Hindus worship Govardhan to honour that first Pooja done by the people of Vraja.

The Firth Day of Diwali: Bhai Duj

The fifth day of the Diwali is called Bhratri Dooj. This is the day after Govardhan Pooja is performed and normally two days after Diwali day. It is a day dedicated to sisters. Many moons ago, in the Vedic era, Yama (Yamraj, the Lord of death) visited his sister Yamuna on this day. He gave his sister a Vardhan (a boon) that whosoever visits her on this day shall be liberated from all sins. They will achieve Moksha or final emancipation. From then on, brothers visit their sisters on this day to enquire of their welfare.  The fifth day marks the end of the five days of Deepavali celebrations. This is also known as Bhai fota among Bengalis. Bhai fota is an event especially among Bengalis when the sister prays for her brother’s safety, success and well-being.

Day 1 of the five days rituals in detail – Dhanteras & its Significance.  

Dhanteras marks the first day of five-days-long Diwali Festival. Dhanteras Festival, also known as Dhantrayodashi or Dhanwantari Triodasi, falls on the auspicious thirteenth lunar day of Krishna Paksha in the Hindu month of Kartik (October/November). In the word Dhanteras, “Dhan” stands for wealth. On Dhanteras Goddess Lakshmi is worshiped to provide prosperity and well-being. Hence Dhan Teras holds a lot more significance for the business community.

Dhanteras Legends
A very interesting story about Dhanteras Festival says that once the sixteen-year old son of King Hima. was doomed to die by a snake-bite on the fourth day of his marriage as per his horoscope. On that particular fourth day of his marriage his young wife did not allow him to sleep. She laid all the ornaments and lots of gold and silver coins in a big heap at the entrance of her husband’s boudoir and lighted innumerable lamps all over the place. And she went on telling stories and singing songs.

When Yama, the god of Death arrived there in the guise of a Serpent his eyes got blinded by that dazzle of those brilliant lights and he could not enter the Prince’s chamber. So he climbed on top of the heap of the ornaments and coins and sat there whole night listening to the melodious songs. In the morning he quietly went away. Thus the young wife saved her husband from the clutches of death. Since then this day of Dhanteras came to be known as the day of “Yamadeepdaan” and lamps are kept burning throughout the night in reverential adoration to Yam, the god of Death.

According to another popular legend, when the gods and demons churned the ocean for Amrit or nectar, Dhanavantri (the physician of the gods and an incarnation of Vishnu) emerged carrying a jar of the elixir on the day of Dhanteras.

Dhanteras Preparations
To mark the auspicious day, houses and business premises are renovated and decorated. Entrances are made colorful with lovely traditional motifs of Rangoli designs to welcome the Goddess of Wealth and Prosperity. To indicate her long-awaited arrival, small footprints are drawn with rice flour and vermilion powder all over the houses. Lamps are kept burning all through the nights.

Dhanteras Traditions
On Dhanteras Hindus consider it auspicious to purchase gold or silver articles or at least one or two new utensils. It is believed that new “Dhan” or some form of precious metal is a sign of good luck. “Lakshmi-Puja” is performed in the evenings when tiny Diyas of clay are lighted to drive away the shadows of evil spirits. “Bhajans”-devotional songs- in praise of Goddess Lakshmi are also sung.

Dhanteras Celebrations
Dhanteras is celebrated with gusto and enthusiasm. “Lakshmi-Puja” is performed in the evenings when tiny diyas of clay are lighted to drive away the shadows of evil spirits. Bhajjans and devotional songs- in praise of Goddess Lakshmi are sung and “Naivedya” of traditional sweets is offered to the Goddess. There is a peculiar custom in Maharashtra to lightly pound dry coriander seeds with jaggery and offer as Naivedya.
In villages cattle are adorned and worshiped by farmers as they form the main source of their income. In south cows are offered special veneration as they are supposed to be the incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi and therefore they are adorned and worshiped on this day.

KALASH – Sthaapna on day 1 that should be part of the alta until the day 5.

It is customary to set the pot on some grains of unbroken rice. This pot represents Varuna, the God of the Ocean, AND LAKSHMI as Mother Earth.

Now Kalash Puja:

KALASH (VARUNA) PUJA IS THE RE-CREATION OF THE EARTH BY YOURSELF AS BRAMHA
Fill the kalasha with water. Offer sandalwood powder,flowers and tulasi to decorate it. Place a coconut on top of the vessel and put your palms over the top of it while chanting the following mantras:

THE KALASH REPRESENTS THE RE-CREATION OF THE NEW EARTH OR NEW KALAPURSHA BECAUSE YOU ARE NOT HAPPY WITH THE OLD EARTH OR OLD LIFESTYLE ON EARTH

KALASHASYA MUKHAE VISHNUHU KANTAE RUDRAHASAMAASHRITAHA
MULAE TATRA STHITHO BRAHMA MADHYAE MAATRAGANAHASMRITAHA

We worship the kalasha (vessel above which the coconut is placed) invoking Mahavishnu at the mouth of the vessel. We invokeLord Rudra (an aspect of Shiva) at the neck of the kalasha and Brahma at thebase of the vessel. We invoke the Universal Mother Goddess and Her retinue in midst of the kalasha. Thus the male and female trinities are invoked. Salutations!

AUM AAJIGHRI KALASHAM MAHYAATVAA-VINSHATVINDAVAH
PUNROOJEE-NIVARTASYA SAANAH; SAHASRAMDHUKSHVORU-DHAARAA
PAYASVATEE PUNARMAA VISHATAA-DRIYAH.

AUM ATRA GANESH VARUNA GAURYA AADI KALSHAA DHISHTITDEVATAASARVE
IHAAGACHCHANTU IHA TISHTANTU SUPREETAA VARDAA BHAVANTU. ITI KALASH;     PRATISHTAA SRI KALASH STHAAPYA SRI KALASH DEVATAA SRIVARUNA DEVATAAYE BHYO NAMAH.

AVAHANA – Invocation -Place the following ingredients on a pan leaf and insert into the Kalash
BY THIS YOU ARE PLACING THE MINERALS AND RESOURCES INSIDE THE NEW EARTH

Chandan (brown Sandalwood powder);     Panch Amritam (a mixture of 5 ingredients)
Sindoor (Red Sandalwood powder);            Pushpam.(White Flowers)
Hardee (Yellow Tumeric powder);               Neemam (Neem Leaf)
Gingelly (White Sesame Seeds);                   Tulsi
Akshat (White Uncooked Rice);                   Yagno Pavitam (Holy Thread)
Dhaan (Unshelled Rice);                                Dhuba Grass(Durwa-dal Grass)
Lawang (Cloves);                                             Naivediam (Mixture of Sugar, Milk Cream & Honey);                    Elaich (Unshelled Cardimon)
Coins (silver);                                                   Supari (Betel Nuts)
Vastram (Cotton Wool);                                 Ritu-Ohal (Grapes or Raisons)

AUM YAH PHALY-NEERYAA APHALAA APUSHPAA YAASHCHA PUSHPINI NOH;  BRIHASPATI PRASOO TAAS TAA NO MUNCHAN TVA GVANG HASAH.

Tie the thread on the Kalash –  or Holythread is to be tied around the neck of the Kalash

AUM YUVAA SUVAASAAHA PARIBEET-AAGAATSAUSREYAAN-BHAVATI
JAAYAMAANAH; TAN DHEERAASAHA KAVAYA UNAYANTI SVAADHYOMANASAA DEVAYANTIH.

Placing the vegetation on Earth – 5 mango leaves are placed in the Kalash, with the stems falling inside the Kalash

KALASH PRARTHANA AUM KALASHSYA MUKHEVISHNU KANTHERUDRAH
SAMAASRITAH; MOOLE TATRASTHITO BRAHMAA MADYEMAATRIGANAH
SMRITAAHA.

THE WORSHIP OF VARUNA
With flowers in your hands, pray that your Earth has berenewed

Now it is the turn of Varuna, the god of the Ocean.Varuna is represented by the water you have taken in the kalasa or pot. SoVarunapujana is also known as kalasapujana. Take some water in your hand andsay:

KALASE VARUNAYA NAMAH SWAHA

Invoking all the places of pilgrimage in this pot, I worship it and bow to it.

After Kalsh Pooja light the following Diyas (lights of Ghee):

  1. Main Diya that should burn for five days if possible (from Dhanteras to Bhaia Dhuj) with the following mantra:

OM AGNEERJOYOTI JOYOTEERH AGNI SWAHA

SURYO JOYOTEER JOYOTIRH SURYO SWAHA

AGNEERVARCHO JOYOTEERVARCH SWAHA

SURYOVARCHO JOYOTEER VARCH SWAHA

JOYOTEE SURYO SURYO JOYOTEERH SWAHA

  1. Light the second Diya with the following mantra:

OM BHAGWATE DHANWANTARE NAMAH

  1. Light the third Diya using (mustered oil) with the following mantra:

 OM YAMRAAJAAYE  NAMAH  SARWA BAADHAA  NIWAARAN DEEPAM DIYETEE

  1. Light at least four (4) more Diyas of Ghee and decorate them around the alta where all the statues of Lord Ganesha, Mata Lakshmi & Lord Vishnu, Mata Saraswati and Mata Shakti are decorated.  This is the place where you will be doing your prayers daily for at least the next five days.

The prayers and stuti to be followed once above has been fulfilled.

Now is the time for singing of bhajjans, kirtans and reading of religious books. Choose a nice katha and deliberate on it.

Those who wish to chant mantras, it should be done now using japa mala.

Finally, Arti is to be performed prior to conclusion of your pooja for the day. Arti should be performed for Ganesha, Lakshmi Mata, Saraswati Mata, Shakti Mata and Lord Vishnu.

Conclude your pooja with chamaa praathna as follows:

Ya Devi Sarva-bhuteshu, Lakshmi-rupenu-sansthitaa,

Namastasyae, Namastasyae, Namastasyae, Namaho-namah.

Tvameva Mata Cha Pita Tvameva

 Tvameva Bandhuscha Sakha Tvameva

 Tvameva Vidya Dravinam Tvameva

 Tvameva Sarvam Mama Deva Deva

Mantra Heenum, Kriya Heenum, Bhakti Heenum Sureshwari

 Yaj Poojeetum Mayadevi, Paripooran Tadastumay

 Om, Dhyaoh Shaantih, Antariksha Shaantih,

Prithavi Shaantih, Aapah Shaantih, Oshadhyah Shaantih,

Vanaspatyah Shaantih, Vishvedevah Shaantih, Brahma

Shaantih, Sarvam Shaantih, Shaantih Eva Shaantih,

Saa Maa Shaantir-edhi,

Om Shaantih, Shaantih, Shaantih

POOJAN VIDHAAN – GANESH DHYAN & POOJA

Lord Ganesha is worshipped first in any Hindu rituals as the Vighnaharta. A full pooja with normal offerings (eg Chandan, Agarbatti, prasaadnam, pushpa, diya, water etc) should be performed.

PERFORM SODASAMATRKA PUJANAM FIRST
(THE WORSHIP OF THE SIXTEEN MOTHERS with all the normal pooja offerings as done for Lord ganesha)

The 16 mothers are represented on the platform by 16 small heaps of rice and a NUTMEG on top. Bowing to the 16 mothers, take rice, flowers and fragrance (atar) in your hands and say:

GOURI PADMA SACIMEDHA SAVITRI VIJAYA JAYA DEVASENA SVADHA
SVAHA MATRO LOKAMATARAH HRSTIH PUSTISTATHATUSTI ATMANAH-
KULADEVATAH GANESE NADHI KAPUJ YAH URDD HOU PUJYASCA SODA SAH

Gouri, Padma, Saci, Medha, Savitri, Vijaya, Jaya,Devasena, Svadha, Svaha, Mataro,
Lokamatrah, Hrstih, Pustistatha, Tusti, Atmakuladevataare the sixteen venerable mothers.

Take a handful of rice and pouring it through your fingers on the red cloth. This is the representation for various deities as explained below: Sprinkle the flowers, rice and fragrance (atar).

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